2019 Report on Chinese Think Tanks
- Modernization of China's Governance and Modernization of Think Tanks
Tang Tao, Yang Yaqin, Zhang Pengfei, Zhou Yanan, Wang Zhen
Tang Tao, Associate Research Professor, Center for Think Tank Studies, SASS
Yang Yaqin, Research Professor, Center for Think Tank Studies, SASS
Zhang Pengfei, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of World Economy, SASS
Zhou Yanan, Research Assistant, Center for Think Tank Studies, SASS
Wang Zhen, Research Assistant, Center for Think Tank Studies, SASS
This paper is a condensed version of 2019 Report on Chinese Think Tanks produced by Center for Think Tank Studies, SASS.
Abstract: The year 2019 marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China and the Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the CPC clarified the development goals and important measures for the modernization of China's system and capacity for governance. As an important part of the China's governance system, Chinese think tanks should closely follow the requirements of the modernized development of the China's system and capacity for governance to continually raise up their modernization level and form a synergistic upward spin with the modernization of China's governance. The 2019 Report on Chinese Think Tanks themed on “Modernization of China's Governance and Modernization of Think Tanks” compiled by Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences (SASS) analyzes the relationship between the modernization of China's governance and the modernization of think tanks, expounds the connotation in the modernization of think tanks, sorts out the development updates of Chinese think tanks in 2019, and propounds suggestions on constructing Chinese think tanks tightly coupling with the requirements of the modernization of China's system and capacity for governance for the construction of Chinese think tanks.
Keywords: Construction of Think Tanks; Modernization; China's Governance
Analysis on the Mechanism of Internet Promoting the Development of China’s Foreign Trade: Based on Panel Data From 31 Provinces and Municipalities
Shi Liangping, Wang Suyun
Shi Liangping, Research Professor, Institute of Economics, SASS
Wang Suyun, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of Economics, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in World Economy Studies, 2018 (12).
Abstract: Against the slowing growth of international trade and the deepening application of Internet in international trade, this paper analyzed the impact of the Internet on China’s total foreign trade volume and trade structure. This paper pointed out that the development of the Internet can boost a country’s foreign trade volume through three channels - information cost saving effect, spillover effect and heterogeneity effect. In this paper, the gravity model was modified using panel data from 31 provinces and municipalities during 2009-2016 with the number of Internet users in these provinces and municipalities as the proxy variable to investigate the impact of the Internet on China’s foreign trade after the financial crisis. Empirical results showed that the development of the Internet has promoted the growth of China’s trade and has had a more significant impact on China’s export trade volume. Furthermore, this paper investigated the impact of the Internet on the structure of goods trade and examined the difference in the impact of the Internet on primary goods, intermediate goods, capital goods and consumer goods. Data suggested that in the structural analysis of goods trade, the Internet plays the most significant role in promoting the import of consumer goods, evidenced by the increase of 1.469% in import volume of consumer goods with every 1% in the number of Internet users, which also shows the gap between China’s consumption upgrading and insufficient effective supply in a sense.
Keywords: Internet; Foreign Trade; Mechanism Analysis; Structural Analysis; Panel Data
Study on the Ecological Compensation Mechanism of a Watershed Based on an Urban Agglomeration by Using the Yangtze River Basin as an Example
Cao Liping, Zhou Fengqi, Wu Meng
Cao Liping, Associate Research Professor, Institute of Ecology and Sustainable Development, SASS
Zhou Fengqi, Research Professor, Director, Institute of Ecology and Sustainable Development, SASS
Wu Meng, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of Ecology and Sustainable Development, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2019 (01).
Abstract: Urban agglomerations in river basin areas across a relatively large spatial range are similar in the design of the river basin ecological compensation mechanism therein due to the similarity of geographical location, natural resource endowment and socio-economic structure. However, there are also big differences in the design of ecological compensation mechanisms for different urban agglomerations because of the difference of such factors above. Moreover, only studying a single urban ecosystem and its cooperative management cannot fundamentally solve the ecological environmental problems of regions (including river basin in an urban agglomeration and urban agglomerations in a river basin). From the perspective of urban agglomerations, the study of coordinated development of regions can improve the cooperation degree among cities and the coordination degree of policy-making, and provide a new idea for the study of basin ecological environmental governance as well as the supply-demand balance of ecosystem services. Taking the Yangtze River Basin as an example, this paper studies the river basin ecological compensation mechanism of typical urban agglomerations, compares the similarities and differences in the design of ecological compensation mechanisms between different urban agglomerations, and forms a design innovation for the ecological compensation mechanism of Yangtze River Basin based on urban agglomerations. As a result, it provides policy suggestions for innovating the long-term mechanism of river basin ecological compensation based on urban agglomerations and coordinating the ecological environmental protection system of urban agglomerations in a river basin.
Keywords: Urban agglomeration; Watershed; Ecological Compensation; Yangtze River Basin
Research on Chinese License for Open Government Data
Fan Jiajia, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of Information Sciences, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Chinese Public Administration, 2019 (01).
Abstract: To address the imbalance between value release and risk management in open government data in China, scientific and rational top-level design is required. Through literature review, induction and deduction, case analysis and other methods, in this paper, the author put forward that rationally allocating the rights and responsibilities of stakeholders in the government’s open campaign can balance between value release and risk management in open government data, which is also the key to developing Chinese License for Open Government Data. In this paper, the author explained the theoretical basis for the development of Chinese License for Open Government Data, raised the ideas such as the government urgently needs to develop a free data pricing policy and a three-level open policy, demonstrated the development process of a five-tier data pricing system and an exemption list, and developed the text framework of Chinese License for Open Government Data.
Keywords: Chinese License for Open Government Data; Value Release; Risk Aversion
Analysis of the Impact of Population Aging on Economic and Social Development in Shanghai
Chun Yan, Guo Haisheng, Wang Can
Chun Yan, Research Professor, Institute of Urban and Demographic Studies, SASS
Guo Haisheng, PhD student, Institute of Economics, SASS
Wang Can, post doctor student, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Shanghai Economic Review, 2019 (08).
Abstract: Taking Shanghai as an example, this paper explores and investigates the impact of population aging on regional economy and society, as well as the relationship between relevant factors that affect population aging, adopts system dynamics (SD) method to construct a regional impact model of population aging; studies and analyzes the regional economic and social development trends associated with population age structure changes under different scene models. The research results show that: (1) The regional impact model of population aging proposed in this research effectively simulated the impact of population age structure changes on regional economic and social development and the effect of policy regulation; (2) Different scene-based simulations clarified the regulation scope of different policies, and revealed that any single policy has a limited effect in improving the changes of population age structure, it is necessary to coordinate different policies and adopt comprehensive measures to cope with population aging; (3) The parameter design and basic data of the regional impact model of population aging are derived from regional statistics, so the model can be adjusted and used to investigate aging problems in other regions, providing theoretical basis and methodology support for the policy design and institutional arrangements in different regions.
Keywords: Population Aging; Economic and Social Development; Relationship between System and Factors; SD Model; Shanghai
The Social Nature of Skills: Based on Dreyfus’ Skill Model
Zhang Fan, Associate Research Professor, Institute of Philosophy, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Studies in Dialectics of Nature, 2019 (09).
Abstract: Skill is the ability to achieve predetermined objectives, so it has to conform with operational norms and social norms, which are designed for tools and users respectively. The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition discussed operational norms, but neglected that relying on tools alone cannot construct a complete set of standard systems. The standardization of skills depends on the use of tools and should conform with social norms. Gaining experience is essential to skill acquisition. Experience depends not only on proficient operation, but also on social norms. Skill transfer requires not only physical operation but also social communication. Skill assessment depends not only on operational norms, but also on moral standards. Whether machines can master human-like skills depends on its social nature. Based on existing technologies, no one can ensure that the computer can fully integrate into human society.
Keywords: Skill; Ability; Social Norm
Robust Peacekeeping and Transformation of UN Peacekeeping Operations
Li Yincai, Associate Research Professor, Institute of International Relations, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Foreign Affairs Review, 2019 (04).
Abstract: Since 1999, the newly-established peacekeeping operations of the United Nations have basically obtained robust mandate, which is mainly attributed to arduous challenges and tremendous risks confronting peacekeeping missions in the context of the ongoing intrastate conflicts. Although it only provides vague authorization for robust peacekeeping, which determines the limitations and inherent defects of the operations, Chapter VII of The United Nations Charter still creates ample room for the use of force. Robust mandate also makes peacekeeping sharply deviated from the Hammarskjöld Principles. Firstly, The rules of engagement have been revised to “non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate”. Expansion of mandate tasks and change in passive defensive posture reveal the militarized trend in the peacekeeping. Secondly, some “spoilers” are excluded from consent framework and demonstrate the involuntary mandatory features. Thirdly, impartiality is separated from neutrality. Neutrality is gradually weakened and abandoned, while proactive stance is taken. What is embarrassing, instead of inadequate mandate, ineffective response is the current main problem of Peacekeeping Missions. Robust peacekeeping further complicates the peacekeeping situations. The United Nations needs to recognize its own capacity constraints For peacekeeping missions with coercive features, the United Nations should make place for stakeholders. “Cooperative peacekeeping” mode should be adopted, thereby alleviating pressures and operational difficulties brought about by robust peacekeeping.
Keywords: Robust Peacekeeping, The United Nations Charter; Three Principles of Peacekeeping; Peacekeeping Missions; Cooperative Peacekeeping; Intrastat Conflicts
The Conflicts between the KMT and the CPC with the Diplomacy of Great Powers around the Big Bombing in Shanghai in 1950
Xu Fenghua, Associate Research Professor, Institute of History, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Historical Review, 2019 (03).
Abstract: Around 1950, the KMT carried out a series of bombing on the newly-born China, with the most destructive one in Shanghai. The Taiwan side launched the bombing on February 6, 1950 with its ulterior motives and internal deep political factors. The Soviet Union and the United States took distinct reactions to the 2/6 Bombing in Shanghai, the former strengthened the Sino-Soviet cooperation in military, economic, diplomatic and other fields while the later worsened the already deadlocked Sino-US relations. In fact, this was a game among the two Parties, the Soviet Union and the United States, as well as an important political node in foreign relations of the new China. During this short period, China’s policy of sidelining the United States and leaning toward the Soviet Union, the American Wedge strategy which aims to divide the alliance between China and the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union’s plan of forming alliance with China to oppose the US, and the wait-and-see attitude of European countries were clearly demonstrated, revealing the special effect of China’s regime change on world pattern.
Keywords:the CPC; the Kuomintang (KMT); the 2/6 Bombing; Economic Response; Major Power Diplomacy