Development and Reform of New China’s Service Industry in the Past 70 Years
Zhu Pingfang, Wang Yongshui, Li Shiqi, Xie Ruoqing
Zhu Pingfang, Research Professor, Research Center of Econometrics, SASS
Wang Yongshui, Business School, East China University of Political Science and Law
Li Shiqi, Institute of Economics, SASS
Xie Ruoqing, Institute of Economics, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in The Journal of Quantitative & Technical Economics, 2019 (08).
Abstract: Research objective: To review and summarize the historical process for reform and development of Chinese service industry in the past 70 years since the founding of New China at different stages and by segments, measure the historical contributions of service industry to economic and social development, and analyze the far-reaching impacts of new industries, new business patterns and new business models on the development of service industry. Research methodology: Based on economic growth and national economic accounting theory, this paper organically combines statistical data with policy-related text references. Research findings: In the past 70 years since the founding of New China, the development of service industry has basically evolved from the dominance of traditional service industries to the joint development of traditional service industries and modern service industries, which undergoes six stages, i.e., “Serious Suppression; Exploration and Recovery; Start-up Development; Rapid Development; Catch-up Development; Transcendental Development”. With the gradual progress in economic system reforms, traditional service industries gradually transform and upgrade, while new service business formats spring up like mushrooms. Research innovation: This paper reviews the historical trajectory of the development of Chinese service industry from a dynamic perspective, probes into the laws behind the development of service industry, analyzes and takes an outlook on the prospects of new business formats and new business models. Research significance: This paper summarizes development experience and lessons of Chinese service industry, and gives a reference for the high-quality development of service industry.
Keywords: Service Industry; Development Process; Experience and Revelation
70 Years of China’s Economic Diplomacy: Views and Choices
Sun Yiran, Research Professor, Institute of World Economy, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in World Economy Studies, 2019 (10).
Abstract: Over the past 70 years after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, China’s economic diplomacy has experienced different stages of development, and occupied an increasingly important position in China’s overall diplomacy. As an embodiment of national will, economic diplomacy reflects a country’s cognitive judgment of the international order, its priority order of national interests, and strategic choice of implementation plans. From this perspective, the rich connotations of China’s economic diplomacy can be summarized as a concise clue, that is, how to realize and promote the country’s core interests in an effective and feasible way under the specific background of international order. China’s unique views on international order and interests shape the understanding of the background of decision making and the goals pursued at different stages, thereby affecting and determining the choices of specific paths.
Keywords:The 70th Anniversary;Economic Diplomacy; International Order; National Interests; Strategic Choice
Development Environment of Shanghai in the New Era
Wang Jian, Hu Xiaopeng, Li Kaisheng, Wu Qisheng, Ke Jing, Zhang Qun, Yu Xiaojing
Wang Jian, Research Professor, Director, Institute of International Relations, SASS
Hu Xiaopeng, Research Professor, Deputy Director, Institute of World Economy, SASS
Li Kaisheng, Research Professor, Deputy Director, Institute of International Relations, SASS
Wu Qisheng, Associate Research Professor, Institute of International Relations, SASS
Ke Jing, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of International Relations, SASS
Zhang Qun, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of International Relations, SASS
Yu Xiaojing, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of Applied Economics, SASS
Abstract: There are four parts in this report. The first part explains Missions and Tasks for Shanghai in the New Era. The authors first discuss basic characteristics of economic development in the new era, namely new normal of development, new strategic imperatives and new competition landscape. The authors then elaborate missions and tasks for Shanghai in the new era. They are: the “Five Centers” initiative, three strategic tasks, and making China International Import Expo as a platform. The second part evaluates Domestic and International Environment for Shanghai’s Development. The authors first investigate four major aspects of domestic development environment, including potentials of economic development, science and technology progress and industrial upgrading, inter-provincial competition for premium resources, and regional cooperation led by central cities. The international development environment is also reviewed from four perspectives: international political situation, international economic and trade landscape, international financial environment, and global development of science and technology. The third part discusses Challenges and Opportunities for Development of Shanghai. The authors first analyze the challenges facing Shanghai, including external risks due to changing global political situation, proliferation of new generation international trade and investment rules, changing international financial environment, and global science and technology revolution. Based on that and Shanghai’s own advantages, the authors investigate into such factors as global industrial upgrading, deteriorating external environment, resource and environmental constraints, as well as intensifying inter-regional competition for premium resources, and analyze possible opportunities for Shanghai in industrial capacity building and further opening up in trade and the financial sector. In the fourth part, based on the changing domestic and international environment as well as their impact on Shanghai’s development, the authors put forward detailed policy suggestions in three aspects — strategic layout, building core competitiveness and improvement of business improvement.Keywords: Development Environment; Shanghai; New Era; Policy Suggestion
Research on Effective Government, Effective Market and Business EnvironmentOptimization: Taking Shanghai as an Example
Ni Wai, Associate Research Professor of Institute of Economics, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Shanghai Journal of Economics, 2019 (10).
Abstract: The core of business environment is the institutional soft environment, which is essentially the contract execution efficiency. A good business environment can only be established by coordinating the roles of “effective government” and “effective market”. Shanghai is a typical government-led business environment, whose distinctive features and shortcomings reflect the advantages and limitations of the government’s functional mechanism. Based on the international standard evaluation and the comparison of different indicators between Shanghai’s business environment and the world-leading cities, it is found that the disparity is mainly shown at three levels: absolute disparity, relative disparity and “no significant disparity”; the existing level and optimization orientation of Shanghai’s business environment are more favorable for mature enterprises, rather than growth-oriented enterprises; and optimizing existing business environment can promote the globally-oriented open economic development of Shanghai. The core path of optimizing Shanghai’s business environment is to make innovations in the supervisoryand service mode based on market mechanism, build a unified market system for SMEs and private enterprises; establish a fairer and more efficient market exit mechanism, and improve the institutional soft environment.Keywords: Shanghai; Business Environment;International Standard; Effective government; Effective Market
A Philosophical Review of Comtemporary Quantum Theory
Cheng Sumei, Research Professor, Institute of Philosophy, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Social Sciences in China, 2019 (02).
Abstract: The rapid development of modern quantum technology has verified the correctness of quantum theory. Quantum theory not only opens up a new era of natural science and technology research, providing a new conceptual framework for us to understand the microscopic world and develop new technologies, but also presents a crucial philosophical declaration, which is mainly reflected in four aspects: Firstly, it establishes the concept that “the microscopic world is discontinuous”; secondly, it argues that microscopic particles are abstract reality, which can be neither observed directly nor conceptualized; thirdly, it advocates using abstract mathematical thinking, rather than image thinking; fourthly, it reveals that quantum theory is talking about the world, not describing it. The formation of these philosophical ideas does not mean that we give up the reality of theory, but changes the way we understand the reality of theory, and then shows that the deeper knowledge of mathematics and physics will lead to more innovative philosophical ideas.Keywords: Quantization; Mathematical Thinking; Quantum Reality; Comprehensibility of Theory
On the Expression of Environmental Rights in the Constitution of China and the Implementation of Such Provisions
Peng Feng, Research Professor, Institute of Law, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Political Science and Law, 2019 (10).
Abstract: The concept of the environmental right originated from western countries in the mid-19th century and was introduced into China in the 1980s. During the course of amending the Constitution in 2018, the issue of whether environmental rights should be constitutionalized again aroused attention of various parties who held different opinions. Globally, the environmental rights in Western constitutions may be manifested as either human rights or rights of nature, of which environmental rights as human rights may be further manifested as the right to freedom, the right to political participation, the right to society, and the right to solidarity, which are protected in the Constitution. If the Constitution only confirms a single environmental right enjoyed as an individual right, such environmental right will not enjoy superiority in competing with other rights, instead, it goes against environmental protection. The debate over the constitutionalization of environmental rights should shift towards the implementation of provisions of the Constitution on guaranteeing the environmental rights, focusing on the quality and implementing effect of environmental legislation.Keywords: Environmental Rights; Constitution; Human Rights; Right of Nature
Enabling and Implementing: The Development of Political Party Organizations in the New Technology Era
Shu Yun, Assistant Research Professor, Institute of Politics and Public Administration Studies, SASS
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Academic Monthly, 2019 (12).
Abstract: Party politics is the concentrated embodiment of political modernization, and advancements in information technology play an important role in the development of party politics. This paper tries to analyze the influence of new information technology on the development of political party organizations with two concepts of “technology enablement” and “technology enactment”. “Technology enablement” emphasizes the impact of technology on governance itself. It is manifested by the use of mobile Internet technology by political party organizations to strengthen “persuasion and propaganda”, and the use of voter analysis (based on positioning and data analysis technology) and customized push function to “guide and manipulate” elections. As for “technology enactment”, it is argued that the technology to be implemented is different from the objective technology in the process of embedding technology into an organization. There is an institutional lag in the use of technology by political party organizations, which tend to implement new technologies in a way that strengthens the existing structure. Under the joint effect of the logic of the party organization and the logic of technology, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has formed a technology application mode initiated by its internal organizations and promoted by the organizational way. Finally, this paper discusses the impact of information technology on archives recording, information storage and information processing, explores whether the impact will trigger internal changes in the political party organizations, and investigates the relationship between the logic of the political party and the logic of technology.
Keywords: Technology Era; Political Party Organization; Technology Enabling; Technology Implementing
Jiang Baolin, Associate Research Professor,
This paper in Chinese was originally published in Historical Review, 2019 (04).
Abstract: In the early days, Nanking National Government established a regime of “special municipality” in parallel to the province. In July 1927, Special Municipality of Greater Shanghai was officially established, but scopes of its jurisdiction and governing powers were not comprehensively defined for a long time. Its administrative region was mainly transferred from